美高梅官网_美高梅官网登陆 www.papillonbusinesssolutions.com Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050：Strategic General Report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Science and technology is the engine to human modernization, and is also the major solution to the economic crisis. The global financial crisis caused by the subprime credit crisis of the USA undermines the economic entity. This may give rise to the possibility of a global economic crisis and lead to a great change for world economic structure. History tells us that any global economic crisis always expedites great S&T innovation and breakthroughs. And that employing S&T innovation to boost economy and upgrading the development mode is the fundamental way-out of the economic crisis. For instance, the two major technology revolutions, electric revolution and electronic revolution broke out following the global economic crises in 1857 and 1929 respectively. The current financial crisis will speed up the progress of science and innovation, and may eventually lead to a new revolution in science and technology within the next 10–20 years. This is a huge challenge for us, but, at the same time, a great opportunity for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
The current global financial crisis has already hit China’s economy. This has set higher demands on China’s science professionals that greater efforts must be made to employ science and innovation to ensure economic growth, boost domestic demands and consumption, and adjust industrial structure. In the final analysis, the employment of S&T innovation to adjust industrial structure, to boost economy and to sort out the development mode is the best solution to the economic crisis. We must be able to foresee world science development, make overall arrangements for China’s S&T strategies, and sort out the priority areas and the solutions to the key S&T problems which may affect China’s modernization by 2050. We must energize innovation with Chinese characteristics to make overall arrangements, figure out the priorities, and prepare for the impending S&T revolution. We must vigorously support China’s science and its sustainability, and build up an innovation-driven country by modern science.
The world is at the eve of a new round of S&T revolution, which happens as a consequence of the powerful demands of modernization, and innovation and transformative breakthroughs in knowledge and technology system. Looking at the world modernization process, the conflict between the magnificent drive towards modernization by over 3 billion people, including Chinese, in an effort to have a better-off life and the decreased natural resources and deteriorating eco-environment becomes increasingly sharp. It will be difficult to continue the conventional mode of economic growth with the sacrifice of non-renewable natural resources and eco-environment, or by grabbing world resources as some countries used to do. We must develop with a scientific, coordinative and sustainable manner, and call for transformative breakthroughs and revolution in science and technology. Looking at the current world S&T development, the first half of the 20th century witnessed the major scientific discoveries that established the foundation of modern science and technology. “The Silence of Science” has so far remained for over 60 years. Mass conflicts within the knowledge-based system gradually emerge. There are now signs of transformative breakthroughs in some key S&T problems, as evidenced in the scientific areas: the regulation of mass and energy, quantum information monitoring and transmission, genetic heredity, variation and evolution, synthetic biology, brain structure and function, cognition, and evolution of earth systems, and in the strategic areas: energy, resources, information, advanced materials, modern agriculture, population and health.
Looking back at the modernization history, every great revolution was closely linked with transformative breakthroughs in science and technology, which had a far-reaching impact on the rise and fall of a nation and the destiny of a country as well. The countries that were able to seize the opportunity and achieve the economic take-off had taken the lead in fulfilling modernization. While, China, because of its repeated loss of the opportunity in modern history, fell from a world economic power into a poverty-stricken country, subject to insult and humiliation by other powers. In the face of the opportune moment of an impending S&T revolution and with the strategic objectives in mind to achieve modernization and a better-off society, China can no longer afford to lose this opportunity, but must be fully prepared itself for it.
This general report describes the prospects of China’s modernization in 2050 in terms of politics, economy, culture, society, conservation culture, and opening-up to the outside. It sets forth the perspectives of building up eight basic and strategic systems for socio-economic development with the support of science and technology, and lays out the characteristics and objectives of the eight systems at different stages. Firstly, in terms of the system of sustainable energy and resources, efforts must be done to improve the efficient use of energy and resources, to prospect the strategic resources such as those in the continental shelf and deep earth, and to develop new energy, renewable energy and replaceable energy. Secondly, in terms of the green system of advanced materials and intelligent manufacturing, efforts must be done to speed up the process of introducing environmental-friendly, intelligent and cyclic renewable technologies in fabricating materials and manufacturing products, to promote the updating of the manufacturing structure and strategies, and to ensure the effective supporting of materials and equipments for the progress of China’s modernization, and the related clean, high efficient, cyclic renewable utilization. Thirdly, in terms of the system of ubiquitous information networking, efforts must be done to promote technologies such as intellectual broadband wireless networking, network super-computing, advanced sensing & display and reliable software, to speed up the growth, raise the application level, and eliminate digital divide. We need to explore a path of sustainable development featuring universal adoption of trustworthy and low-cost IT. Fourthly, in terms of the system of ecological and high-value agriculture and biological industry, efforts must be done to promote the upgrading of industrial structure, and facilitate smooth transformation of China’s agriculture toward high-yield, high-quality, high-efficient and eco-friendly agriculture, and that will also improve China’s food safety. Fifthly, in terms of the generally applicable health assurance system for China’s one billion-plus population, efforts must be done to transform the therapy-oriented medicine to a system based on predictive intervention, to combine the frontier life science with the strength of traditional Chinese medicine, and strive for taking a leading role in world health. Sixthly, in terms of the development system of ecological and environmental conservation in favor of the coexistence between man and nature, efforts must be done to completely recognize the laws governing environmental evolution, to raise China’s capabilities in eco-environmental monitoring, protection, restoration and in tackling the global climate change, and enhance its ability in the prediction, prevention and alleviation of natural disasters. Related technologies and measures must be developed in order to provide the total solutions. Seventhly, in terms of the expanded system of space and ocean exploration capability, efforts must be made to improve China’s ocean exploration and application ability, ocean resources development and utilization ability, space science and technology ability, and the ability of earth observation and multispatial information application. Eighthly, in terms of the national and public security system, efforts must be made to develop both conventional and nonconventional security technologies, and to improve its monitoring, early warning, and quick-response capacity.
Based on the eight basic and strategic systems, the general report has laid out the S&T roadmap and sorted out twenty-two S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China’s modernization as follows. The first is the six S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China’s international competitiveness, including: new principles and technologies of “Post-IP” network and its testbeds, green production of high-quality raw materials, process engineering of high-efficient, clean, and cyclic utilization of resources, ubiquitous informationized manufacturing system, Exa (1018) supercomputing technology, molecular design of animal and plant products in agriculture. The second is the seven S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China’s sustainability, including: “4,000 meter transparence underground” program, new renewable energy power systems, deep geothermal energy power generation, a new nuclear energy system, a marine capacity expansion plan, stem cell and regenerative medicine, early diagnosis and systematic intervention of major chronic diseases. The third is the two S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China’s national and public security, including: space situation awareness network (SSAN), and social computing & parallel management systems (PMS). The forth is the four basic science initiatives likely to make transformative breakthroughs, including: exploration of dark matter and dark energy, controlling the structure of matter, artificial life and synthetic biology, and mechanism of photosynthesis. The fifth is the three emerging initiatives of cross-disciplinary and cutting-edge research, including: nano-science and technology, space exploration and satellite series, and mathematics and complex systems. These S&T initiatives of strategic importance have not yet or not sufficiently been laid out in the existing national S&T plans. As such, actions must be taken, at the national level, to mobilize integrated resources to accomplish large undertakings, under China’s unique political and institutional system. Such measure as precursory projects, key research programs, or research priority clusters must be employed for further implementation, scientific plans be worked out, overall plans be made, division of labor as well as cooperation be adopted, and key research projects be tackled. By doing everything we can, breakthroughs in scientific theories and transformative innovation in key technology and system integration are expected to be achieved.
The eight basic and strategic systems for socio-economic development must be carried out by employing S&T innovation in line with objective laws and China’s reality, and achieving the strategic transform from imitation to innovation. S&T innovation with Chinese characteristics means that we must adopt the following approaches: relying on domestic efforts and effectively integrating the global innovation resources in line with opening to the outside world; assembling and cultivating talented people via innovation practice in line with the principle of putting people first; integrating the market’s primary role and the government’s macro-regulation based on China’s reality; ensuring division of labor as well as cooperation among stakeholders of the national innovation system in line with deepening reform; and promoting S&T innovation through management innovation in line with comprehensive planning.